/Up-to-date clinical approaches of biomarkers’ use in heart failure

Up-to-date clinical approaches of biomarkers’ use in heart failure

Heart failure (HF) is considered a leading cause of death in patients with established cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic diseases. Although current treatment strategy has improved survival rate and clinical outcomes of HF, the HF prevalence exhibits growth especially in older patients’ population and survivors after coronary atherothrombotic events. Current clinical guidelines regarding treatment and prevention of HF claim the role of biological markers as pretty easy and powerful tool for diagnosis, risk stratification, and prognostication of HF. However, there is not clear whether all these biological markers are able to equally predict CV death and HF-related outcomes in patients with acute and chronic HF as well as in various phenotypes of HF. The aim of the review is to discuss a role of in risk stratification and individual treatment in patients with different phenotypes of HF.